A IS FOR AGRICULTURE & ARCHAEOLOGY
ARCHAEOLOGY in American Samoa began on Savai'i island in 1957. Since then, surveys and studies in the rest of Samoa have uncovered major findings of settlements, stone and earth mounds including star mounds, Lapita pottery remains and pre-historic artifacts. The oldest date so far from prehistoric remains in the Samoan Islands has been calculated to a likely true age of c. 1050 BCE from a Lapita site.
American Samoa has many species of BIRDS. The National Park of American Samoa is home to more than 35 species, both resident and migratory. The cliffs and sea stacks are ideal nesting habitats for tropical seabirds, while the rain forest is home to collared kingfishers, cardinal and wattled honeyeaters, the bluecrowned lories, the purple-capped fruit doves, the Pacific Pigeon, and banded rails. One of the rarest birds that nest on Tutuila is also one of the most beautiful - the Many Colored Fruit-Dove. The most unique bird is the fuia or Samoan Starling. The Barn Owl is a highly beneficial bird in the territory. April/May is the time of year when some shorebirds leave American Samoa and begin a journey home. These birds include the Pacific Golden Plover, the Wandering Tattler, and the Ruddy Turnstone.
American Samoa has many forms of COMMUNICATION including newspapers, magazine, radio, and telephone, and television. Samoan, a Polynesian language, is the first language for most of the Samoa Islands' population including the Independent State of Samoa and the Territory of American Samoa. It is an official language — alongside English — in both jurisdictions.
Education in American Samoa Is provided by the American Samoa Department of Education. It has 23 primary schools and 10 secondary schools. Five are operated by them and the other 5 are administered by either religious denominations or are privately owned. Home Schooling is becoming popular. Legal residents of American Samoa who have graduated from high school or obtained a General Equivalency Diploma are admitted to American Samoa Community College
A variety of EVENTS are held in American Samoa. All United States Public holidays are observed. The territory also celebrates its own Flag Day. Discoverer’s Day, as Columbus Day is called in American Samoa, is a week-long celebration of both Christopher Columbus’ New World discovery and American Samoa’s own growing tourism industry.
The FLAG of American Samoa consists of a red-edged white triangle pointing towards the hoist charged with a bald eagle clutching a war club and fly-whisk, with dark blue upper and lower triangles. In 1960, it was adopted 1960 to replace the "Stars and Stripes" as the official flag of the territory. The colors used epitomize the traditional colors of the United States and Samoa. National Motto of American Samoa is Samoa Muamua le Atua (Samoan, Samoa, God is First).
American Samoan FOOD today shows some clear historical influences, mostly European and Chinese. The territory has a variety of FOOD including many traditional foods. Special foods are suckling pig, chicken, fish, palusami, breadfruit, coconut, bananas, lime and mango. Food is cooked but may be served cold. A great quantity of food is served at special events, with guests being expected to eat a portion and take the rest home to share with their households. Kava is the national drink and is often drunk in sacred ceremonies.
American Samoa does not have any FORTS but it has had Batteries. Matautu Ridge Battery was manned by personnel from Tutuila Naval Station during World War I. Blunts Point Battery is also known as Tulutulu Point and two guns are still located here. It is a rare example of a World War II Pacific coastal gun. Tours can be arranged by the National Park Service. Breakers Point Naval Guns has two 6-inch naval guns that were manned by a U.S. Marine Defense Battalion during World War II.
The GLOBAL POSITIONof American Samoa is approximately 14 latitude south and 170 longitude west. The geographic center is about 1.03 miles southwest of Fagatogo. The highest peak is Lata Mountain and the lowest point is the Pacific Ocean. Geocaching is a popular activity. There are several maps showing the topography of the territory.
The HISTORY of American Samoa dates back some 3,000 years ago when Polynesians first settled there. In 1722 they were discovered by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutch explorer. In 1900 it became an unorganized U.S. territory, and today it is the only U.S. territory located south of the Equator.
American Samoa has 5 main ISLANDS. Tutuila is the largest and main island. Manu'a islands are a cluster of three islands. The Swains Islandis used as a copra plantation. Rose Atoll is an uninhabited wildlife refuge. Natural arch on Aunu'u Island was shaped by the sea waves. Pola Island (Cockscomb) is a small, narrow , elongated island with up to 100 m tall cliffs.
The JUDICIARY of American Samoa consists of the High Court of American Samoa and a local district court under the administration and supervision of the Chief Justice. Both courts are located in the capital of Pago Pago. The Chief Justice and the Associate Justice of the High Court are appointed by the United States Secretary of the Interior, and the 6 associate judges of the High Court and one local district court judge are appointed by the Governor of American Samoa. Because American Samoa does not have a federal court matters of federal law the Chief Justice and the Associate Justice of the High Court are appointed by the United States Secretary of the Interior matters of federal arising in American Samoa have generally been adjudicated in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii or the District Court for the District of Columbia.There is one local district court judge, who is appointed by the Governor.The Chief and Associate Justices, and the local district and associate judges hold office for life with good behavior.The American Samoa judiciary has a public defender, probation officers, translators, and marshals.
Samoan is the official LANGUAGE, alongside English, of American Samoa. It is a Polynesian language and the first language for most the the population. The language is notable for the phonological differences between formal and informal speech as well as a ceremonial form used in Samoan oratory. There are approximately 470,000 Samoan speakers worldwide, 50 per cent of whom live in the Samoan Islands. Samoan Language Week is an annual celebration of the language in New Zealand supported by the government and various organisations including UNESCO.
The Feleti Barstow Public Library located at the village of Utulei serves as the central LIBRARY for the Territory of American Samoa. The library has multimedia materials, a computer room for internet access, and other programs including word processing. The Pacific Collection contains research materials on Pacific Islands, rare books, Samoan history, and e-books. It also has a large selection of fiction materials for adults, young adults, books in large type format, and an active volunteer program. The library has Special Events and e-books. A library is also located at the American Samoa Community College.
The Jean P. Haydon Museum is dedicated to the culture and history of American Samoa. It is is housed in 2 historical US Navy buildings the Navy Commissary and the Garage, which was also home to the Post Office.
American Samoa has a population of over 56,000 PEOPLE. Several notable people have come from American Samoa. The Sadie Thompson Building on the outskirts of Pago Pago has significance from 1916 when author W. Somerset Maugham stayed there for 6 weeks. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003.
A QUILT Festival in Texas featured National Parks including American Samoa National Park. Weaving is popular. The Ie sae is a special finely woven mat that is an important item of cultural value. Basket weaving is a fine art in the territory.
American Samoa does not have any RIVERS. However, it has both saltwater and freshwater marshes as well as wetlands. Much of the most important wetlands are the mangrove swamps and coastal freshwater marshes. The Faimulivai Marsh is a freshwater marsh in Aunu'u Crater on Aunu'u Island and the largest such wetland in American Samoa. The territory has a number of streams including Laufuti Stream on the island of Taú. The streams have fish, snails, and shrimp.
American Samoa has a variety of TRAILS. The National Park of American Samoa offers a variety of hikes hikes that include tropical rain forests, beach walks, and steep panoramic vistas. The Ofu-Olosega Highway goes from the village of Ofu to the village of Olosega. The highway makes up most of the northern border of the Ofu portion of American Samoa National Park and passes as a one-lane bridge over the Agasa Strait.
American Samoa has several forms of TRANSPORTATION including bus, taxi, and airplane. There are 3 numbered territorial highways in American Samoa. There are unnumbered highways on the islands of Ofu, Olosega, Tau, and Tutuila. All are maintained by the American Samoa Department of Public Works. Vehicles drive on the right side of the road. The territory has a variety of license plates.
American Samoa is made up of VOLCANOES. Tau is the largest island in the Manu‘a Group and the eastern most volcanic island of the Samoan Islands and part of American Samoa. Ofu-Olosega are parts of a volcanic doublet in the Manu‘a Group of the Samoan Island and part of American Samoa. Vailulu'u is a new submarine volcano rapidly rising from the depths of the ocean to the east of Ta'u Island. It has a wide, round caldera and a new volcanic cone. This new volcanic cone was named Nafanua. The volcanic cone in the center of the caldera contains a group of hydrothermal vents inhabited by numerous eels This is unusual - in general vertebrates do not live near hydrothermal vents.
The residents of American Samoa cannot VOTE in national elections but they do hold presidential primaries and send 9 delegates to the nominating conventions for each party. They can elect one nonvoting delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives, who is permitted to cast votes on amendments to a bill but not its final passage. People born in American Samoa – including those born on Swains Island – are American nationals, but are not American citizens unless one of their parents is a US citizen.
The WEATHER in American Samoa is tropical marine with little seasonal temperature variation. The trade winds blow all year round. Due to its positioning in the South Pacific Ocean, it is frequently hit by typhoons between December and March.
Large flying foxes, also know as fruit bats, are one of the more unusual animals in American Samoa. Three species inhabit the territory – two large fruit bats and a small insect eating bat. These three are the only native mammals in the Samoan islands. They serve an important role in pollinating the island's plants. The sheath-tailed bat was nearly eliminated by Cyclone Val in 1991. Other wildlife includes Rodents and Feral Pigs. It also has stray and feral Dogs, and stray and feral Cats.. The territory has an Animal Rescue Organization